The Business Review Journal

(The Journal of American Business Review, Cambridge)

Vol. 4* Number 2 * Summer 2016

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC   *   ISSN 1553 - 5827

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC   *   ISSN 2167-0803

Online Computer Library Center, OH   *   OCLC: 940146916

National Library of Australia   *   NLA: 49026139

The Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI,

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The primary goal of the journal will be to provide opportunities for business related academicians and professionals from various business related fields in a global realm to publish their paper in one source. The journal will bring together academicians and professionals from all areas related business fields and related fields to interact with members inside and outside their own particular disciplines. The journal will provide opportunities for publishing researcher's paper as well as providing opportunities to view other's work. All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process.  The journal is a refereed academic journal which  publishes the  scientific research findings in its field with the ISSN 2167-0803 issued by the Library of Congress, Washington, DC.  The journal will meet the quality and integrity requirements of applicable accreditation agencies (AACSB, regional) and journal evaluation organizations to insure our publications provide our authors publication venues that are recognized by their institutions for academic advancement and academically qualified statue.  No Manuscript Will Be Accepted Without the Required Format.  All Manuscripts Should Be Professionally Proofread Before the Submission.  You can use for professional proofreading / editing etc...

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Understanding FDI and Production Networks in East Asia

Dr. Willem Thorbecke, Japan’s Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI), Tokyo, Japan

Nimesh Salike, Lecturer, International Business School Suzhou, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China



We investigate the factors influencing foreign direct investment in East Asia. We provide empirical evidence from the electronics industry supporting Kojima’s (1973) hypothesis that FDI in the region originates from the capital exporting country’s disadvantaged industry into the host country’s advantaged industry.  These results imply that FDI and trade are complementary, unlike in Mundell’s (1957) model where they are substitutes. The results also indicate that exchange rate volatility deters trade, implying that reduction in the service link cost between production blocks can promote fragmentation.  These findings imply that host countries in East Asia can obtain technology transfer by lowering service link costs.  Why do firms engage in foreign production? According to Dunning (1988), the answer depends on a firm’s OLI (Ownership, Location, and Internalisation) configuration and its ability to exploit these OLI advantages in the target market. Ownership advantage is based upon technological and managerial superiority of home country firms relative to host country firms. Such superiority must be sufficient to overcome the extra costs incurred due to differences in business customs, formal and informal norms, languages, etc. Thus ownership is linked with control, and control becomes weaker as ownership becomes more diluted. Of course firms that outsource or subcontract may retain some control if they are involved in long-term relations. There may also be benefits to relinquishing ownership if the business partner has better managerial or technological ability in a particular product. Locational considerations and advantages include wage levels, factor endowments, technology transferability, physical and human infrastructure, and market-supportive institutions and political regimes. Internalisation advantage refers to the net benefits obtained by FDI firms through more captive and more integrated business activities conducted by parent firms. The optimal degree of internalisation revolves around how to balance the costs of asymmetric information, incomplete contracts, and ineffective dispute settlement mechanisms with the efficiency gains of complete outsourcing and de- verticalisation.  Mundell (1957) showed that capital movement occurs from a capital-abundant country to a capital-scarce country in search of a higher marginal rate of return when the latter impedes the importation of capital-intensive goods from the former. In the capital-receiving country, the capital inflow causes the equilibrium production point to shift in such a direction that the capital-intensive industry (i.e., that country’s comparatively disadvantaged industry) expands, while the less capital-intensive industry (i.e., that country’s comparatively advantaged industry) contracts. In the capital-transferring country, exactly the opposite phenomenon occurs. As a consequence, the basis for trade (i.e., the existing pattern of comparative advantage between the two countries) is in the end eliminated by the movement of capital.


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Reengineering Culture as a Way to Address the Economic Disparity Among Native Hawaiians

Dr. Larson Ng, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i



Native Hawaiians are the most economically disenfranchised ethnic group living in Hawai‘i. Many have often attributed their situation to a lack of education and/or economic opportunity. However, there is another possible factor that could be contributing to this situation. This factor is culturally rooted in the Native Hawaiian notion of economic production and profit. The following paper will initially survey the current economic disparity facing Native Hawaiians and then go on to explain the Native Hawaiian cultural understanding of economic production and profit, illustrating its differences with the capitalist-based notions of economic production and business profit. The paper will then conclude by offering what can be done to reengineer traditional Native Hawaiians economic beliefs that may work to culturally assist Native Hawaiians address the economic problems most of them face.  Native Hawaiians are one of the most disadvantaged people living in Hawai‘i. The following will briefly survey the economic situation that a majority of Native Hawaiians face.  Native Hawaiians have the highest unemployment rate of any major ethnic group living in Hawai‘i. Nearly one in ten Native Hawaiians in the civilian labor force was unemployed, in contrast with approximately one in seventeen statewide from 2006 to 2010 (Kamehameha Schools, 2014). Native Hawaiians are also underrepresented in white collar or management and professional occupations, which tend to offer the most economic security. For example, the ratio of Native Hawaiians in such occupations is 8.1 percentage points lower than the statewide average (Kamehameha Schools, 2014).Conversely, Native Hawaiians are overrepresented in blue collar or non-management, nonprofessional occupations. For example, the ratio of Native Hawaiians in transportation and production occupations is 3.0 percentage points higher than the statewide average (Kamehameha Schools, 2014). Similarly, the ratio of Native Hawaiians in construction, extraction, and repair occupations is 3.5 percentage points higher than the statewide average (Kamehameha Schools, 2014). Moreover, Native Hawaiians continue to be employed in agricultural, labor, and production occupations at higher rates than the state population. This gap between the Native Hawaiian rate and the statewide average, however, has ranged from 7.5 percentage points in 1990, decreased to 5.7 percentage points in 2000, but increased 6.5 percentage points in 2010 (Kamehameha Schools, 2014). Finally, the unemployment rate among Native Hawaiians has exceeded the statewide average since 1990. For example, the gap between the unemployment rate of Native Hawaiians and the state population has increased over the last two decades from 2.2 percentage points in 1990, to 3.5 percentage points in 2000, and 3.2 percentage points in 2010 (Kamehameha Schools, 2014). Native Hawaiian households were the least likely to have a livable income and the most likely to live in poverty of all the major ethnic groups in Hawai‘i.


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Defining The Market: Performance Measurement For Management Forecasting

Dr. Tony Carter, Professor, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT



This article investigates and examines the positive role that management tools, such as quantitative based sum of the least squares regression analysis can have coupled with qualitatively based Customer Advisory Boards.   The ability to identify the future conditions in the marketplace, how active a company will be, what staff levels it will need or the actions of competitors can be difficult to predict with any degree of precision.  Documenting this plan creates a degree of accountability rather than just being able to say “I’ve got our plan all in my head.”  No business understands the importance of effective sales planning better than the competitive soft drink beverage industry.  PepsiCo’s net sales totaled $30.4 billion, with 71 percent of its revenue generated from the domestic U.S. market.  Coke’s net sales totaled $18 billion, with 71 percent of its revenue coming from global markets.  PepsiCo will alter its global strategy in the future, targeting emerging markets, like China, India and Eastern Europe. Managers that direct growing business activity annually have the ability to know their customers well enough in order to design a sales process that meets their needs.  Customer sophistication and price and value sensitivity are strong factors in both retail and business to business customer buying behavior.  Wal-Mart changed its business design by offering inexpensive access to a wide range of nationally known products.  Wal-Mart made shopping easier by offering lower prices than other department stores and using logistics to cut an average of two hours off shopping time. Customer Advisory Boards are a dynamic practical management tool that can greatly enhance the customer development and retention process and give firms a distinct competitive advantage. Organizations should develop programs for customer satisfaction, measure customer loyalty and further understand customer intimacy and its role in customer retention and more study is warranted in this area.  The purpose of this article is to look at how management tools, such as Customer Advisory Boards along with traditional quantitative forecasting, such as sum of the least squares and regression analysis, can help organizations.  The turmoil in the workplace results in part from management ineffectiveness that made these organizations less competitive. Workers who gave loyalty under the old system have suffered under the new. It is no surprise that employee cynicism has grown. For effective performance to occur, even in large organizations, which depend on thousands of employees understanding the company, strategies must be translated into appropriate actions and leaders must win over their followers one by one. Customer Advisory Boards are a dynamic, practical management tool that can greatly enhance the customer development and retention process and give firms a distinct competitive advantage (Ross 1997). These boards should be comprised of ten to twenty members. Ideally, members should be senior level managers with decision making authority in their own organizations. It is also advised to target as board members people with knowledge in areas where the company is weak. For example, a company might try to draft a technology expert for help with finding opportunities on the internet. Once a board has been formed, it should meet two to four times per year. Agendas could include company strategy, product quality, sales problems, customer satisfaction and marketplace changes (Carter 1999).  A CAB is also a competitive advantage in itself.  One telecommunications company included in the study found that its customer base was eroding. 


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Knowledge Spillover Effects of Star Analysts

Dr. Po-Kai Huang, Shih Hsin University, Taiwan



This paper investigates the knowledge spillover effects of star analysts. Specifically, we investigate whether the analysts who belong to the investment banks existing star analysts can forecast earnings accurately through the knowledge spillover effects of star analysts. This issue is important for knowledge spillover effects, and yet we know so little about it. We find that earnings forecasts that are produced by star analysts are indeed more accurate than those by non-star analysts. Moreover, we indicate that if during the specified year a brokerage firm has star analysts, the average earnings forecasting errors of other analysts at the same brokerage firm will be lower. These results remain unchanged even control for the number of companies and industries analysts covered, the number of days from forecast earnings to published actual earnings, and company characteristics, etc.  Each year the Institutional Investor asks analysts who work on the buy-side to vote for their “star analysts.” The candidates consist of analysts that work on the sell-side. Institutional Investor asks the buy-side to rate sell-side analysts in six of their primary activities: picking stocks, estimating corporate earnings, acquiring knowledge of their industry, writing reports, being responsive to clients’ requests and initiating timely calls to investors. Academic literature believes that these star analysts indeed excel in what they do. For example, star analysts supply more accurate earnings forecasts than other analysts (Stickel, 1992), and stocks recommended by the all-star analysts outperform benchmarks (Desai, Liang, and Singh, 2000). Sinha, Brown, and Das (1997) also indicate that star analysts remain superior in the next period.  Star analysts have expertise that can be transferred to other analysts who work at the same brokerage firm. As Nelson (1986) and Jaffe (1989) considered, when the research and development conducted by universities or research institutes produces external benefits by facilitating the production and innovation of manufacturing firms in their neighboring industries, such a diffusion of knowledge is known as a knowledge spillover. This study believes that because knowledge possesses distribution and transmission characteristics, the expertise of star analysts has positive knowledge spillover effects. Moreover, as Jaffe (1989) considered, neighboring producers of knowledge are beneficial to the positive externalities of knowledge spillovers, even through informal talks. Star analysts can share their experience with their colleagues, and these colleagues can also ask the star analysts for guidance or advice. In this way, colleagues within the same industry can obtain advanced industrial information or create private information channels. Colleagues from different industries can also develop better analytical skills and abilities, thus allowing the analysts who are affiliated with the star analysts to calculate earnings forecasts more accurately. Many studies have already confirmed the positive spillover effects if there are “stars” in the financial services industry. Star funds have positive spillover effects in cash inflow. Nanda, Wang, and Zheng (2004) indicate that star fund results in greater cash inflow not only to the fund, but to other funds in its fund family. Zhao (2004) also find that star fund closing decisions brings investors’ attention and investments to other funds in the family.


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A Study of Emotional Hyperbolic Discount Utility for Intertemporal Decision Making

Dr. Yeu-Shiang Huang, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

Yu-Sheng Chen, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan



The hyperbolic discount utility model, which is commonly used to help explain intertemporal decision-making behaviors, is well-recognized for resolving the paradox of preference reversal and being less steeply discounting than the exponential discount utility model. However, while much attention has been paid to hyperbolic discount utility, it still cannot explain some anomalies. This study considers decision makers’ internal feelings toward the difference between the actual and anticipated results of a future event to explain intertemporal decision-making behaviors, and proposes an anticipative hyperbolic discount utility model in which the degree of the subjective feeling of inner happiness, which is an emotional function that may affect the decision-making process, is taken into account. This proposed emotional hyperbolic discount utility model investigates the effects of the decision makers’ emotional fluctuations on intertemporal decisions with conditions of different amounts of payoffs, probabilities of obtaining payoffs, and timing of obtaining payoffs. The proposed model can also be used to infer the relationship between the emotional factor and discount utility, and thus can explain some paradoxes that cannot be explained by the original intertemporal discount models. Therefore, the proposed model is more realistic in interpreting intertemporal decision behaviors.  People would generally prefer to obtain $1,000 immediately rather than a week later, since they often calculate the discounted present value of the future amount of money based on the market interest rate. However, in an intertemporal decision-making context, the discount rate does not have a basis for the discounted utility of the anticipated results of a future event. Discount utility models have thus been developed to evaluate intertemporal decision-making behaviors (Samuelson, 1937; Lancaster, 1963; Stevenson, 1986). However, discount utility, like the expected utility theory, has some unexplainable anomalies (Thaler, 1981; Roelofsma, 1996; Wathieu, 1997; Lazaro et al., 2002). This study investigates the effects of the anticipated results of future events on current feelings based on the hyperbolic discount utility model with consideration of both the time factor and the likelihood the anticipated results would occur or not.  Since the conventional discount utility models are incapable of sufficiently explaining intertemporal decision behaviors, many revised models have been proposed. The exponential discount utility model with a constant discount rate is the base model, with later models being developed by considering anticipated psychological factors (Prelec, 1989; Green et al., 1994). However, since exponential discount utility models are incapable of explaining preferential reversals, the hyperbolic discount utility model was then proposed, and has since become the main research stream in this area (Mazur, 1987). A number of anticipated psychological factors have also been considered to revise the original hyperbolic discount utility models. However, since such hyperbolic models have been criticized as being rather inflexible, a set of power law discount models have been proposed, although these have not yet been extensively studied (Huang & Wu, 2007).  Loewenstein (1987) considered that discount utility models can be extended by incorporating anticipated psychological factors, and thus integrated consideration of individuals’ future preferences and anticipation of specific results into the exponential discount utility model.


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Some Thoughts on Business Rules

Dr. Mirko Cubrilo, Zagreb University, Croatia

Dr. Mirko Malekovic, Zagreb University, Croatia

Dr. Kornelije Rabuzin, Zagreb University, Croatia



In this paper we discuss some aspects of the current state in the field of business information systems domain with an emphasis on the domain (context) of business rules, ranging from theoretical assumptions through modelling (in appropriate languages and tools) to use in business, with a focus on so called business rule paradox.  It is well known that in many areas of human activity there is a gap between theory and practice and that this gap is mostly expressed either through inadequate theory or inadequate practice, where it is usually more often the case that the theory is more developed then the practice, or (in its own way, even though that may seem to be paradoxical) practice is more developed then theory. In the context of business processes and rules, their modelling and effective application to business practices, there is a paradox of the existence of highly developed theories which would enable quality practices, and a whole array of individual, very proficient practical solutions (implementations of business rules) on the one side, but no universal and generally accepted methodology for modelling bussines rules as a service for business processes and information systems to support them on the other side. The part of the problem is to be found in the inherent complexity of corresponding theories and tools which are necessary for modelling business rules and processes, but a part is to be found in inadequate (and due to systemic reasons incomplete) education of the main participants in that process, as well as a lack of communication between them.  Business rules are undoubtedly one of the most important resources of any business subject. They are inherent to every business process, independent of its being conducted manually or with the support of information technology. In the first case they are dispersed in the multitude of laws, statutes, standards, business regulations, business and technical documentation and so on. In the second case, in the context of modern business practice, which is increasingly dependent on the support of information technology and is conducted in the virtual world of computers and computer nets ranging from local to global, like the World Wide Web, they are partially implemented in the processes through which business itself is pursued. Large companies and software manufacturers like Microsoft or IBM, conscious of a potentially vast market in the business rules segment, have developed or are currently developing large-scale development environments for business support, such as BizTalk Server (Microsoft) or WebSphere ILOG JRules (IBM), which, among other features, contain “modules” or even “languages” for modelling business rules. The importance of business rule modelling is additionally emphasized by the fact that a whole host of professional association (such as Business Rule Community (1), Object Management Group (2) - OMG, W3C (3), Eclipse (4), Protégé (5), IIBA,(6) …)is developing standards, specific programming languages, modelling languages (especially markup languages grouped around XML) and development environments for the requirements of the business rule and business process modelling as well as for the so-called accompanying technologies (semantic web, ontologies, Web services). 


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The Financial Characteristics of Firms that Have Changed Their Pension Plans

Dr. Tae Ryu, Metropolitan State University of Denver, CO

Dr. Gregory Clifton, Metropolitan State University of Denver, CO



Pension plans are designed to provide income to individuals during their retirement years.  This is accomplished by setting aside funds during an employee’s working years so that at retirement the accumulated funds plus earnings from investing those funds are available to replace wages.  In general, pension plans are divided into two basic types: defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC).  DB plans promise a specified benefit at retirement, whereas DC plans are based on contributions into individual accounts, with benefits being determined by the value of the fund at retirement.  Thus, employers are at risk with DB plans because they must contribute enough to meet the cost of benefits that the plan defines.  According to a recent survey conducted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the number of private DB pension plans has declined substantially over the past two decades.  About 92,000 DB plans existed in 1990 compared to just under 29,000 plans in 2009.  At the same time, the number of DC pension plans, such as 401(k)-type plans, has grown dramatically and resulted in a huge shift from DB plans to DC plans.  The primary reason for the shift is that government regulations make DB plans cumbersome and costly to administer.  DC plans often cost no more than 3 percent of payroll, but DB plans can cost 5 to 6 percent of payroll.  Also, employers bear the burden of any investment losses, in the form of increased funding requirements, because DB plans guarantee a certain benefit.  In this study, we investigate the financial characteristics of firms that switch to DC plans.  Using the dichotomous regression model, we examine the effects of firms’ financial characteristics – profitability, liquidity, activity, solvency, size, cash flows, pension funding status, pension expense ratio, bankruptcy risk - on their decisions to either stay with DB plans or switch to DC plans.  The logistic regression results show that earnings per share, debt/equity ratio, pension funding status, pension expense ratio, cash flow ratio, bankruptcy risk are significant determinants of firms’ decisions on whether to switch to DC plans or not. Pension plans are an important component of compensation for many employees.  The plans provide monetary benefits to employees after their retirement in return for their employment services.  A survey found that, in 2006, nearly half of all American households whose head was age 60 or older had income from their own or spouse’s pension, and the average pension benefit was $15,784 per year (National Institute on Retirement Security).  Pension plans are established for a variety of reasons.  One of the earliest benefits was that a pension plan solved the problem that arose from the rising wages for long-term employees.  As employees’ wages continued to rise, old workers were sometimes encouraged to stay with their employers for too long.  But, pension plans can encourage the employees to retire at the “right” age.  Also, pension plans can provide employees with a degree of retirement security and this security in turn attract and help retain good employees.  Meanwhile, from the employees’ perspective, pensions are valued as a means of long-term savings, especially in cases where employees perceive that they lack the self-control to save independently (Friedberg 2002).  Germany became the first county in the world to introduce a public pension in 1889. 


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Integrative Forces in Dynamic Ecosystems of Entrepreneurship

Dr. Maryluz Ordonez Santos, University of Pamplona, Colombia

Luz Stella Arenas Perez, Francisco de Paula Santander University, Colombia



Analyzing the vision of entrepreneurship, beyond a traditional position, implies an ecosystem look, which assumes the convergence of various actors towards a common goal. Faced with this challenge, this article seeks to interpret the structure underlying the dynamic ecosystems of entrepreneurship, and presents an abstract model to define the study of its nature and address the complexity of the phenomenon that the complex relationships present between the actors and their environment.  From a graphical view, the results are shown as a driving force with integrative view, which is obtained through a qualitative study, and supported methodologically in hermeneutics and ethnomethodology. The article aims to contribute both from a theoretical perspective, and from a practical point of view, by linking stakeholders in the ecosystem and contribute to the discussion an image that will allow a systematic review.  One of the basic pillars of Entrepreneurship is developing the “Ecosystem” term, which refers to the study, analysis and explanation of the various complex relationships between institutions and entrepreneurs, with academic, social, political and economic environments. In the Ecosystem, strategies are developed to create successful relationships as a source capable of generating a competitive advantage. It is argued that universities contribute to the formation of entrepreneurs with the teaching of the knowledge that the environment calls for it; however, training programs, the definition and identification of the idea, methodologies and tools to build business models and business plans do not always give a seal of approval for business initiation. Given this inconsistency, it is interesting to remember the entrepreneurial action from two key concepts: the ecosystem and sustainability, for all systems of innovation and entrepreneurship work the way they should be.  In the literature focused on issues of entrepreneurship, it is common that the terms ecosystem and sustainability have taken off in recent years. When referring about the culture of entrepreneurship, the local development and the competitiveness, in any social study is sought to understand the place that each player occupies as an individual, as a member of an organization, and as an association.  It is from Kantis’ proposal (2008) that shows positive influence on the success by promoting entrepreneurial development, which adds behavioral determinants to broaden the base of competitive SMEs committed to regional profile enrichment with activities that build the productive structure of socioeconomic development. She analyzes the relationship of a series of variables that result in the accumulation of a knowledge platform, from the results of the research process, the consulting work in the field by promoting entrepreneurship, the pioneering studies with the Inter-American Development Bank, the research on experiences of international policy, the pilot projects of the Multilateral Investment Fund and the various programs and policy initiatives undertaken in different countries.  In this line, Kantis (2014), facing the challenge for the emergence of innovative proposals, suggests the need to implement policies and regulations that can contribute decisively to the creation of more favorable conditions for entrepreneurship.

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Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the journal.  You are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of any information (text; pictures; tables. etc..) from this web site or any other linked web pages is strictly prohibited. Request permission/Purchase article (s):


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Index: The Library of Congress, Washington, DC:    ISSN: 1540 – 7780

Index: Online Computer Library Center, OH:   OCLC: 805078765 

Index: National Library of Australia: NLA: 42709473

Index: Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI.

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